Frequently Asked Questions

What are varicose veins?

Varicose veins–which afflict 10% to 20% of all adults –are swollen, twisted, blue veins that are close to the surface of the skin. Because valves in them are damaged, they hold more blood at higher pressure than normal. That forces fluid into the surrounding tissue, making the affected leg swell and feel heavy. Unsightly and uncomfortable, varicose leg veins can promote swelling in the ankles and feet and itching of the skin. They may occur in almost any part of the leg but are most often seen in the back of the calf or on the inside of the leg between the groin and the ankle. Left untreated, patient symptoms are likely to worsen with some possibly leading to venous ulceration.

What causes varicose veins?

The normal function of leg veins – both the deep veins in the leg and the superficial veins – is to carry blood back to the heart. During walking, for instance, the calf muscle acts as a pump, compressing veins and forcing blood back to the heart. To prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction, veins have numerous valves. If the valves fail (a cause of venous reflux), blood flows back into superficial veins and back down the leg. This results in veins enlarging and becoming varicose. The process is like blowing air into a balloon without letting the air flow out again- the balloon swells. To succeed, treatment must stop this reverse flow at the highest site or sites of valve failure. In the legs, veins close to the surface of the skin drain into larger veins, such as the saphenous vein, which run up to the groin. Damaged valves in the saphenous vein are often the cause of reversed blood flow back down into the surface veins.

Why does it occur more in the legs?

Gravity is the culprit. The distance from the feet to the heart is the furthest blood has to travel in the body. Consequently, those vessels experience a great deal of pressure. If vein valves can’t handle it, the backflow of blood can cause the surface veins to become swollen and distorted.

Who is at risk for varicose veins?

Conditions contributing to varicose veins include genetics, obesity, pregnancy, hormonal changes at menopause, work or hobbies requiring extended standing, and past vein diseases such as thrombophlebitis (i.e. inflammation of a vein as a blood clot forms.) Women suffer from varicose veins more than men, and the incidence increases to 50% of people over age 50.

What are the symptoms?

Varicose veins may ache, and feet and ankles may swell towards day’s end, especially in hot weather. Varicose veins can get sore and inflamed, causing redness of the skin around them. In some cases, patients may develop venous ulcerations.

What are venous leg ulcers?

Venous ulcers are areas of the lower leg where the skin has died and exposed the flesh beneath. Ulcers can range from the size of a penny to completely encircling the leg. They are painful, odorous open wounds which weep fluid and can last for months or even years. Most leg ulcers occur when vein disease is left untreated. They are most common among older people but can also affect individuals as young as 18.

What is the short term treatment for varicose veins?

ESES (pronounced SS) is an easy way to remember the conservative approach. It stands for Exercise Stockings Elevation and Still. Exercising, wearing compression hose, elevating and resting the legs will not make the veins go away or necessarily prevent them from worsening because the underlying disease (venous reflux) has not been addressed. However, it may provide some symptomatic relief. Weight reduction is also helpful. If there are inflamed areas or an infection, topical antibiotics may be prescribed. If ulcers develop, medication and dressings should be changed regularly. There are also potentially longer-term treatment alternatives for visible varicose veins, such as sclerotherapy and phlebectomy.

What is sclerotherapy?

A chemical injection, such as a saline or detergent solution, is injected into a vein causing it to “spasm” or close up. Other veins then take over its work. This may bring only temporary success and varicose veins frequently recur. It is most effective on smaller surface veins, less than 1-2mm in diameter.

What is Tumescent Enhanced Sclerotherapy?

Tumescent Enhanced Sclerotherapy is a newly developed, office based technique that takes traditional sclerotherapy a step further by applying tumescent anesthetic solution with a pressure pump designed for the procedure. The TES approach provides immediate compression around the vein thereby helping to maintain the sclerosing agent in the portion of the vein in which it was injected. In addition, the tumescent solution decreases itching and any pain to the patient, reduces the inflammation of surrounding tissues caused by the sclerosing agent and helps dilute any of the sclerosing solution that may inadvertently leak out of the vein. The tumescent solution also decreases the chance of infection while increasing hemostasis. Due to the immediate increased compression the patient need only be wrapped in compression stockings or bandages for approximately 48 hours. After Care Patients are to wear compression stockings for 48 hours. The patient may remove the stockings to shower but put them back as soon as possible after the shower. There are no real physical restrictions on exercise or walking or running as long as the compression is worn. The physician should have follow up with patients 2 weeks post procedure or during the next sclerotherapy session. Complications Complications are rare and mostly limited to allergies and minor skin reactions. Allergies are treated accordingly. Skin reactions could result in ulceration which can be treated with topical antibiotics and rarely oral antibiotics while they are healing. Post Inflammatory hyperpigmentation can be treated with a variety of agents and usually resolves.

What is ambulatory phlebectomy?

As with sclerotherapy, ambulatory phlebectomy is a surgical procedure for treating surface veins in which multiple small incisions are made along a varicose vein and it is “fished out” of the leg using surgical hooks or forceps. The procedure is done under local or regional anesthesia, in an operating room or an office “procedure room.”

What is vein stripping?

If the source of the reverse blood flow is due to damaged valves in the saphenous vein, the vein may be removed by a surgical procedure known as vein stripping. Under general anesthesia, all or part of the vein is tied off and pulled out. The legs are bandaged after the surgery but swelling and bruising may last for weeks.

What is the main difference between arteries and veins?

In simplest terms, arteries pump oxygen-rich blood FROM the heart, veins return oxygen-depleted blood TO the heart.

What are the three main categories of veins?

Deep leg veins return blood directly to the heart and are in the center of the leg, near the bones.

Superficial leg veins are just beneath the skin. They have less support from surrounding muscles and bones than the deep veins and may thus develop an area of weakness in the wall. When ballooning of the vein occurs, the vein becomes varicose.

Perforator veins serve as connections between the superficial system and the deep system of leg veins.

What is superficial venous reflux?

Superficial venous reflux is a condition that develops when the valves that usually keep blood flowing out of your legs become damaged or diseased. This causes blood to pool in your legs. Common symptoms of superficial venous reflux include pain, swelling, leg heaviness and fatigue, as well as varicose veins in your legs.

What is the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure?

The Venefit™ procedure is a minimally invasive treatment for superficial venous reflux. A thin catheter is inserted into the vein through a small opening. The catheter delivers radiofrequency (RF) energy to the vein wall, causing it to heat, collapse, and seal shut.

When is Venefit™ (Closure®) used?

Venefit™ (Closure®) is used, like vein stripping, to eliminate reverse blood flow in the saphenous vein, but without physically removing the vein, and can be performed without general anesthesia. Like other venous procedures, the Venefit™ procedure involves risks and potential complications. Each patient should consult their doctor to determine whether or not they are a candidate for this procedure, and if their condition presents any special risks. Complications reported in medical literature include numbness or tingling (paresthesia) skin burns, blood clots, temporary tenderness in the treated limb.

How does it work to treat superficial venous reflux?

Since valves can’t be repaired, the only alternative is to re-route blood flow through healthy veins. Traditionally, this has been done by surgically removing (stripping) the troublesome vein from your leg. The Closure® procedure provides a less invasive alternative to vein stripping by simply closing the problem vein instead. Once the diseased vein is closed, other healthy veins take over and empty blood from your legs.

How is the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure different from vein stripping?

During a stripping procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in your groin and ties off the vein, after which a stripper tool is threaded through the saphenous vein and used to pull the vein out of your leg through a second incision just above your calf. In the Venefit™ procedure, there is no need for groin surgery. Instead, the vein remains in place and is closed using a special (Venefit™) catheter inserted through a small puncture. This may eliminate the bruising and pain often associated with vein stripping (i.e., that may result from the tearing of side branch veins while the saphenous vein is pulled out). Vein stripping is usually performed in an operating room, under a general anesthetic, while the Venefit™ procedure is performed on an outpatient basis, typically using local or regional anesthesia. Three randomized trials of the Venefit™ procedure vs. vein stripping, including the most recent multi-center comparative trial, show very similar results. In the multi-center comparative trial, the Venefit™ procedure was superior to vein stripping in every statistically significant outcome. In the study, 80.5% of patients treated with the Venefit™ procedure returned to normal activities within one day, versus 46.9% of patients who underwent vein stripping. Also, Venefit™ patients returned to work 7.7 days sooner than surgical patients. Patients treated with the Venefit™ procedure had less postoperative pain, less bruising, faster recovery and fewer overall adverse events. Lurie F, Creton D, Eklof B, Kabnick LS, Kistner RL, Pichot O, et al. Prospective randomized study of endovenous radiofrequency obliteration (Closure®) versus ligation and stripping in a selected patient population (EVOLVES study). J Vasc Surg 2003;38:207-14.

How long does the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure take?

The Venefit™ procedure takes approximately 45-60 minutes, though patients normally spend 2-3 hours at the medical facility due to normal pre- and post-treatment procedures.

Is the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure painful?

Patients report feeling little, if any, pain during the Venefit™ procedure. Your physician will give you a local or regional anesthetic to numb the treatment area.

Will the procedure require any anesthesia?

Many patients can resume normal activities immediately. For a few weeks following the treatment, your doctor may recommend a regular walking regimen and suggest you refrain from very strenuous activities (heavy lifting, for example) or prolonged periods of standing. Goldman, H. Closure of the greater saphenous vein with endo radiofrequency thermal heating of the vein wall in combination with ambulatory phlebectomy: preliminary 6-month follow-up. Dermatology Surg 2000; 26:452-456.

How soon after treatment will my symptoms improve?

Most patients report a noticeable improvement in their symptoms within 1-2 weeks following the procedure.

Is there any scarring, bruising, or swelling after the Venefit™(Closure®) procedure?

Patients report minimal to no scarring, bruising, or swelling following the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure.

Are there any potential risks and complications associated with the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure?

As with any medical intervention, potential risks and complications exist with the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure. All patients should consult their doctors to determine if their conditions present any special risks. Your physician will review potential complications of the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure at the consultation, and can be reviewed in the safety summary. Potential complications can include: vessel perforation, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, phlebitis, hematoma, infection, paresthesia (numbness or tingling) and/or skin burn.

Is the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure suitable for everyone?

Only a physician call tell you if the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure is a viable option for your vein problem. Experience has shown that many patients with superficial venous reflux disease can be treated with the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure

Is age an important consideration for the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure?

The most important step in determining whether or not the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure is appropriate for you is a complete ultrasound examination by your physician or qualified clinician. Age alone is not a factor in determining whether or not the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure is appropriate for you. The Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure has been used to treat patients across a wide range of ages.

How effective is the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure?

Published data suggests that two years after treatment, 90% of the treated veins remain closed and free from reflux, the underlying cause of varicose veins.

Merchant RF, DePalma RG, Kabnick LS. Endovascular obliteration of saphenous reflux: a multicenter study. J Vasc Surg 2002;35:1190-6.

Weiss RA, et al. Controlled Radiofrequency Endovenous Occlusion Using a Unique Radiofrequency Catheter Under Duplex Guidance to Eliminate Saphenous Varicose Vein Reflux: A 2-Year Follow-up, Dermatologic Surgery, Jan 2002; 28:1: 38-42.

Whiteley, MS, Holstock JM, Price BA, Scott MJ, Gallagher TM. Radiofrequency Ablation of Refluxing Great Saphenous Systems, Giacomini Veins, and Incompetent Perforating Veins using VNUS Closure and TRLOP technique. Abstract from Journal of Endovascular Therapy 2003; 10:I-46.

What happens to the treated vein left behind in the leg?

The vein simply becomes fibrous tissue after treatment. Over time, the vein will gradually incorporate into surrounding tissue. One study reported that 89% of treated veins are indistinguishable from other body tissue one year after the Closure® procedure was performed.

Pichot O, Sessa C, Chandler JG, Nuta M, Perrin M. Role of duplex imaging in endovenous obliteration for primary venous insufficiency. J. Endovasc Ther 2000;7:451-9.

Is the Venefit™ (Closure®) treatment covered by my insurance?

Many insurance companies are paying for the Closure® procedure in part or in full. Most insurance companies determine coverage for all treatments, including the Closure® procedure, based on medical necessity. The Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure has positive coverage policies with most major health insurers. Your physician can discuss your insurance coverage further at the time of consultation.

What are patients saying about the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure?

98% of patients who have undergone the Venefit™ (Closure®) procedure are willing to recommend it to a friend or family member with similar leg vein problems. Read our Patient Stories here.

Weiss RA, et al. Controlled Radiofrequency Endovenous Occlusion Using a Unique Radiofrequency Catheter Under Duplex Guidance to Eliminate Saphenous Varicose Vein Reflux: A 2-Year Follow-up, Dermatologic Surgery, Jan 2002; 28:1:38-42.

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